Shale Gas Production Processes
The committee will develop the agenda, select and invite speakers and discussants, and moderate the discussions. Potential effects on surface water and groundwater quality and quantity—Connections between hydraulic fracturing and other production technologies and processes, and water systems, including scientific data and methods in assessing impacts.
Potential effects on landscapes, including soil and living organisms, and other environmental systems—Connections between hydraulic fracturing and other production technologies and processes on environmental systems, including scientific data and methods in assessing impacts.
Technical and engineering processes—Current and prospective technical and engineering processes for exploration and production of hydrocarbons from unconventional resources, and management methods for wastewater, including disposal. As appropriate, the workshop will also include presentations on relevant state and federal water quality laws, regulations, and permitting processes, as well as relevant land-use and land management policies.
Following the workshop, the National Research Council will issue an individually-authored summary of the workshop, prepared by a designated rapporteur. This report will summarize the discussions at the workshop, including priorities for future scientific and engineering research as identified by workshop participants. The workshop was organized and convened by a planning committee and held on September , , at West Virginia University.
Participants were drawn from universities, private companies, federal and state government bodies, and nongovernmental organizations to bring a wide range of expertise and perspectives to the workshop. Sixty-six people attended the workshop, and an additional 54 people participated remotely via webcast Appendix C. The workshop was organized roughly around the statement of task Box 1. Technical and engineering processes Task 4 were discussed in all three sessions.
Each session began with a few plenary talks to provide a broad overview of the topics see the agenda in Appendix B.
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Next, participants broke into four multidisciplinary working groups to discuss the issues in more depth. Each set of working groups discussed the same topics. To begin discussion, two working group members gave. The key points of discussion, technical and engineering issues, and future research priorities were captured by a rapporteur and presented back in plenary session see Appendix D. The workshop concluded with some brief thoughts by planning committee members and other workshop participants. The following overview of the shale gas production process was based on sources cited at the workshop 6 or provided as background by the planning committee e.
The shale gas production process has several stages, most of which are governed by regulations and subjected to various tests by the operator.
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First, the site is prepared by clearing and leveling the land surface and constructing the production infrastructure, including a well pad for the drilling rig and other equipment, an access road to the well pad, reserve pits to manage drilling fluid and cuttings, and compression stations to facilitate the transport of gas. In Pennsylvania, the average size of a Marcellus Shale well pad is about 3 acres, and an additional 6 acres are occupied by roads, pipelines, and water impoundments Johnson, Most pads installed in the past few years have two or three wells, although pads can accommodate up to 12 wells, depending on issues such as lease size and restrictions, available capital, economics, terrain, and logistical challenges Kuntz et al.
Each well is drilled in intervals.
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The first section of the well is drilled with a large-diameter drill bit, and a section of pipe is inserted into the hole. Cement is pumped into the space between the hole and the pipe to secure the pipe in place. A smaller-diameter hole is then drilled to a depth below the water table. A length of pipe, called the surface casing, is set into the borehole and cemented in place. A deeper interval is then drilled and another casing string is cemented. This step may be repeated several times with additional concentric strings of casing Figure 1. Below the aquifers, the casing is set to ensure that gas from the producing zone flows into the well and not into other low-pressure zones outside of the casing.
At depths slightly above the shale layer, the wellbore is generally turned, and drilling continues horizontally through the shale layer for several thousand feet. Next, perforating guns are lowered into the producing section of the well. Explosive charges are detonated to puncture holes through the cement, casing, and edge of the rock formation. This is followed by hydraulic fracturing. Rather than perforating and fracturing the entire gas-producing interval at one time, the process is generally performed on smaller, isolated sections stages of the well.
Fracturing discrete intervals also allows operators to make adjustments for variations in the formation, such as shale thickness, the presence of natural fractures, and proximity to fractures from a nearby well.
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Approximately 5 million gallons of water are required for each hydraulic fracturing job. Some of the sand grains remain in the rock fractures, propping them open and allowing the gas to move. Next, production tubing is lowered to the depth at which fluids have accumulated and the space between the tubing and the casing is sealed with an inflatable packer to ensure that fluids enter the tubing. Jeffery Long, professor of chemistry and chemical and bimolecular engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, and colleagues have devised a space-efficient natural-gas tank that can store the same amount of gas as bulky conventional tanks at a much lower pressure.
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Of the many issues confronting the boom in formation fracturing processes at natural gas and shale oil well heads, water use and reuse are among the most important.
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Skip to main content. Log in Join Contact. Home Shale Gas. Shale Gas. Go to Supplement University of Michigan compiled a report on the imact of shale gas on American manufacturing, in large part focusing on the chemical industry. Featured October , Hilton Alexandria Old Town.
The physics of extracting gas from shale formations -- ScienceDaily
This workshop funded by the UEF identified current and potential alternative uses of natural gas NG and determined which have the highest impact and lowest technical impediments. Proceedings from this workshop are available now. Serves society, particularly where chemical engineering can contribute to the public interest. Search for titles containing the following words:. Conference Presentation. April 2, January 14, Archived Webinar.
Jul 13, Is uncertainty about shale gas and future U. Hear two analysts give their take. The abundance of shale gas resources has transformed the U. Jun 4, This presentation provides insight into processing challenges with tight oil. Opportunity crudes from shale are more readily available in North America with incentives on cost.
However, these Dec 11, This presentation reviews membrane separation processes that could be used to treat hydraulic fracturing flowback waters. The advantages and limitations of these processes are highlighted. Data from Dec 4, This webinar discusses: Key technical and Oct 16, Oct 8, Clean water and on-demand energy are intimately intertwined.
This talk covers technical challenges and solutions for water treatment across broad component technologies reverse osmosis, Aug 21, This presentation focuses on air quality impacts associated with hydraulic fracturing.
Data and modeling on emissions and impacts of photochemically active air pollutants, toxic air pollutants and May 29, It provides the latest research results regarding air quality Oct 3, This webinar provides background on how water is used for drilling and hydraulic fracturing and includes a review of hydraulic fracturing fluid composition and flowback and produced water quantity May 1, Though hydraulic fracturing is far from new technology, shale gas development utilizing fracking currently faces mounting regulatory scrutiny at federal and state levels.
Feb 2, Development of shale gas and oil resources in the United States has resulted in significant byproduct production of natural gas liquids, which has reversed the declining trend in US NGL production Nov 15, Led by experts from academia, government and industry, this interactive Web Forum presents an overview of the history, the current state of development and a look into the future of natural gas shale Apr 7, This issue is currently dealt with state-specific legislation and often lack concrete legal standing. Further, all the natural resources in India including water is subject to public trust doctrine M C Mehta v Kamal Nath , which makes the state trustee of all the natural resources whereas citizens the owner of the resources.
The state can only use the natural resources of public interest and cannot allocate water or other natural without weighing the public interest against the business purposes. By regarding the two as part of the environmental law of the country, the Supreme Court has to some extent conceptualised the common law remedial measures of awarding compensation to the victims of a tortious action in water pollution cases Vellore Citixan Forum v Union of India Under customary laws, the person owning the land also owns the water beneath the ground.
Consecutively, the emerging concept may result in a market-based water right system where buying and selling of groundwater by a private party may surface well over a period Koonan This legislative confusion has given an edge to businesses to install large mechanical pumps and drench water from the adjoining farmlands. For example, recently, a multinational corporation drew around 5,10, litres of water each day from boreholes and open wells leading to a series of litigation Blanco and Razzaque Since water laws are still premature in India, implementing a water-intensive energy natural gas extraction process will surely hurt community water rights.
The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons DGH states that shale gas extraction requires approximately 5 to 9 million litres of water, but it does not indicate if this is one-time use or if it has to be repeated several times during the life of the well, nor does it state the expected gas output per well, so that figures for water needed per unit of gas can be estimated Smith Considering the limited water legislation in India, the implementation of fracking may result in geopolitical and legislative complexities.
This contamination may result in methane-poisoning of water used for drinking and irrigational purposes. To avoid such contamination, as per industry standards, a project proponent must maintain a distance of metres between aquifers and fracture zones Davies et al The Indian water legal regime is far away to make such specific observations, as aquifers are not defined in any of the Indian environmental regulatory or legal regime leading to a free pass for unregulated mixing of shale fluid and aquifers.